Organic farming (OF) is a system-based agricultural production system that operates alongside, rather than against, natural processes.
The main technical variations between organic and traditional plant agriculture are soil fertility, weeds, parasites, and pest control.
Pest management in organic farming can be accomplished by mitigation and corrective steps but must be aimed at preventive pest infestation. Measures to avoid pest infestation apply to phytosanitary quarantine (specific for seeds and planting materials used for planting crops); pest infestation tracking (generally used in Option of cultivars according to the criteria of tolerance and biological plasticity; seed conditioning; removal of troublesome weeds; solarisation; and hygienic conditions.
Prevention of rodents in the organic environment
The basic theory of control of pests in organic systems (OS) should be considered by the mechanism of adaptation of its biocenosis (total population of organisms from the biotope) through correlation and interdependence between cultivated plants, parasites, weeds, pests, technology, and the environment. Protecting plants from pests and diseases is expected to have the most considerable effect on developing organic vegetable crops, owing to the wide variety of pathogens and problems from these crops. The first significant effort to eliminate chemical treatments took place before 1970 when integrated regulation was promoted. According to this definition, all technological approaches are permitted to hold populations of pests and diseases below a certain degree of impairment, which does not affect yields from an economic point of view.
This definition is accepted by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). First of all, natural factors must be used in combination with other approaches suitable to fiscal, ecological, and toxicological requirements.
Quarantine phytosanitary Quarantine is a complex of protective steps taken to discourage and restrict the transmission of viruses, rodents, or weeds from other nations. Overall, the sale of goods between countries must be preceded by a phytosanitary document certifying that the seeds or agricultural materials used to establish the crop (seeds, cuttings, tubers, bulbs, seedlings) are binding. The shrubs or trees) are free from quarantine pests.
Numerous species (mites, insects), usually in polyphagous, are known to be exceedingly harmful. Many attempts have been made to restrict their spread, such as Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado beetle), Tetranychus urticae (red spider mite), Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), Bemisia tabaci (Silverleaf whitefly), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (greenhouse whitefly), Liriomyza trifolii (leaf miner flies), Tuta absoluta (tomato leaf miner), Spodoptera litura (Eastern leafworm moth), Frankliniella intense red (red thrips), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm) or others.
Synthetic pesticides are not allowed in organic farming that seeks to conserve and promote biodiversity within the system. Natural enemies of the pest species are also able to survive, regulating the pest population. Conservation and enhancement of biological aspects of the landscape, such as hedgerows and wetlands and the development of beetle banks and flower strips, have allowed predator populations to survive.
Farmers typically deal with biological species that behave differently under biotic or abiotic forces of nature in agriculture. The pests are very adaptive to production systems changes, particularly from the transition from traditional to organic farms (in conversion).
Selection of cultivars according to the parameters of tolerance and ecological plasticity
A cultivar is probably the most significant aspect on which production and efficiency depend. Due to its physical and technical ability, it will be expressed in terms of practical steps.
To pick the most suitable cultivar for OA, the farmer should consider the critical criteria: market tastes in terms of presentation, taste, etc.; Climate and soil conditions, adaptation to harsh environmental conditions; extreme temperatures, duration of photoperiod, tolerance to high salt concentrations and commercial use of fertilizers; resistance or tolerance to diseases and pests; farming technologies (fields, greenhouses, tunnels, time of sowing, planting and harvesting; Irrigated regime or less, mechanization) and product destination: fresh use and industrialization (canning, freezing, dehydration, etc.);